Stem Cell Treatment for Diabetes is an Option at ASCI
Diabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).
There are three main types of diabetes:
- Type 1 diabetes: results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin. (Also referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM for short, and juvenile diabetes.)
- Type 2 diabetes: results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. (Formerly referred to as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM for short, and adult-onset diabetes.)
- Gestational diabetes: is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may precede development of type 2 DM.
Stem Cell Treatment for Diabetes
Streaming NIH Database:
PD-L1 genetic overexpression or pharmacological restoration in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells reverses autoimmune diabetes.
PD-L1 genetic overexpression or pharmacological restoration in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells reverses autoimmune diabetes. Sci Transl Med. 2017 Nov 15;9(416): Authors: Ben Nasr M, Tezza S, D'Addio F, Mameli C, Usuelli V, Maestroni A, Corradi D, Belletti S, Albarello L, Becchi G, Fadini GP, Schuetz C, Markmann J, Wasserfall C, Zon L, Zuccotti GV, Fiorina P Abstract Immunologically based clinical trials performed thus far have failed to cure type 1 diabetes (T1D), in part because these approaches were nonspecific. Because the disease is driven by autoreactive CD4 T cells, which destroy β cells, transplantation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) has been recently offered as a therapy for T1D. Our transcriptomic profiling of HSPCs revealed that these cells are deficient in programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), an important immune checkpoint, in the T1D nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model. Notably, the immunoregulatory molecule PD-L1 plays a determinant role in controlling/inhibiting activated T cells and thus maintains immune tolerance. Furthermore, our genome-wide and bioinformatic analysis revealed the existence of a network of microRNAs (miRNAs) controlling PD-L1 expression, and silencing one of key altered miRNAs restored PD-L1 expression in HSPCs. We therefore sought to determine whether restoration of this defect would cure T1D as an alternative to immunosuppression. Genetically engineered or pharmacologically modulated HSPCs overexpressing PD-L1 inhibited the autoimmune response in vitro, reverted diabetes in newly hyperglycemic NOD mice in vivo, and homed to the pancreas of hyperglycemic NOD mice. The PD-L1 expression defect was confirmed in human HSPCs in T1D patients as well, and pharmacologically modulated human HSPCs also inhibited the autoimmune response in vitro. Targeting a specific immune checkpoint defect in HSPCs thus may contribute to establishing a cure for T1D. PMID: 29141886 [PubMed - in process]Read more...