Stem Cell Treatment for Diabetes is an Option at ASCI
Diabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).
There are three main types of diabetes:
- Type 1 diabetes: results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin. (Also referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM for short, and juvenile diabetes.)
- Type 2 diabetes: results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. (Formerly referred to as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM for short, and adult-onset diabetes.)
- Gestational diabetes: is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may precede development of type 2 DM.
Stem Cell Treatment for Diabetes
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From basic mechanisms to clinical applications in heart protection, new players in cardiovascular diseases and cardiac theranostics: meeting report from the third international symposium on "New frontiers in cardiovascular research".
Related Articles From basic mechanisms to clinical applications in heart protection, new players in cardiovascular diseases and cardiac theranostics: meeting report from the third international symposium on "New frontiers in cardiovascular research". Basic Res Cardiol. 2016 Nov;111(6):69 Authors: Cabrera-Fuentes HA, Aragones J, Bernhagen J, Boening A, Boisvert WA, Bøtker HE, Bulluck H, Cook S, Di Lisa F, Engel FB, Engelmann B, Ferrazzi F, Ferdinandy P, Fong A, Fleming I, Gnaiger E, Hernández-Reséndiz S, Kalkhoran SB, Kim MH, Lecour S, Liehn EA, Marber MS, Mayr M, Miura T, Ong SB, Peter K, Sedding D, Singh MK, Suleiman MS, Schnittler HJ, Schulz R, Shim W, Tello D, Vogel CW, Walker M, Li QO, Yellon DM, Hausenloy DJ, Preissner KT Abstract In this meeting report, particularly addressing the topic of protection of the cardiovascular system from ischemia/reperfusion injury, highlights are presented that relate to conditioning strategies of the heart with respect to molecular mechanisms and outcome in patients' cohorts, the influence of co-morbidities and medications, as well as the contribution of innate immune reactions in cardioprotection. Moreover, developmental or systems biology approaches bear great potential in systematically uncovering unexpected components involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury or heart regeneration. Based on the characterization of particular platelet integrins, mitochondrial redox-linked proteins, or lipid-diol compounds in cardiovascular diseases, their targeting by newly developed theranostics and technologies opens new avenues for diagnosis and therapy of myocardial infarction to improve the patients' outcome. PMID: 27743118 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Read more...
Molecular Integration of Incretin and Glucocorticoid Action Reverses Immunometabolic Dysfunction and Obesity.
Molecular Integration of Incretin and Glucocorticoid Action Reverses Immunometabolic Dysfunction and Obesity. Cell Metab. 2017 Sep 19;: Authors: Quarta C, Clemmensen C, Zhu Z, Yang B, Joseph SS, Lutter D, Yi CX, Graf E, García-Cáceres C, Legutko B, Fischer K, Brommage R, Zizzari P, Franklin BS, Krueger M, Koch M, Vettorazzi S, Li P, Hofmann SM, Bakhti M, Bastidas-Ponce A, Lickert H, Strom TM, Gailus-Durner V, Bechmann I, Perez-Tilve D, Tuckermann J, Hrabě de Angelis M, Sandoval D, Cota D, Latz E, Seeley RJ, Müller TD, DiMarchi RD, Finan B, Tschöp MH Abstract Chronic inflammation has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of diet-induced obesity. However, scarce therapeutic options are available to treat obesity and the associated immunometabolic complications. Glucocorticoids are routinely employed for the management of inflammatory diseases, but their pleiotropic nature leads to detrimental metabolic side effects. We developed a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-dexamethasone co-agonist in which GLP-1 selectively delivers dexamethasone to GLP-1 receptor-expressing cells. GLP-1-dexamethasone lowers body weight up to 25% in obese mice by targeting the hypothalamic control of feeding and by increasing energy expenditure. This strategy reverses hypothalamic and systemic inflammation while improving glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. The selective preference for GLP-1 receptor bypasses deleterious effects of dexamethasone on glucose handling, bone integrity, and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Thus, GLP-1-directed glucocorticoid pharmacology represents a safe and efficacious therapy option for diet-induced immunometabolic derangements and the resulting obesity. PMID: 28943448 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Read more...
Gene therapy with the TRF1 telomere gene rescues decreased TRF1 levels with aging and prolongs mouse health span.
Gene therapy with the TRF1 telomere gene rescues decreased TRF1 levels with aging and prolongs mouse health span. Aging Cell. 2017 Sep 24;: Authors: Derevyanko A, Whittemore K, Schneider RP, Jiménez V, Bosch F, Blasco MA Abstract The shelterin complex protects telomeres by preventing them from being degraded and recognized as double-strand DNA breaks. TRF1 is an essential component of shelterin, with important roles in telomere protection and telomere replication. We previously showed that TRF1 deficiency in the context of different mouse tissues leads to loss of tissue homeostasis owing to impaired stem cell function. Here, we show that TRF1 levels decrease during organismal aging both in mice and in humans. We further show that increasing TRF1 expression in both adult (1-year-old) and old (2-year-old) mice using gene therapy can delay age-associated pathologies. To this end, we used the nonintegrative adeno-associated serotype 9 vector (AAV9), which transduces the majority of mouse tissues allowing for moderate and transient TRF1 overexpression. AAV9-TRF1 gene therapy significantly prevented age-related decline in neuromuscular function, glucose tolerance, cognitive function, maintenance of subcutaneous fat, and chronic anemia. Interestingly, although AAV9-TRF1 treatment did not significantly affect median telomere length, we found a lower abundance of short telomeres and of telomere-associated DNA damage in some tissues. Together, these findings suggest that rescuing naturally decreased TRF1 levels during mouse aging using AAV9-TRF1 gene therapy results in an improved mouse health span. PMID: 28944611 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]Read more...