Stem Cell Treatment for Diabetes is an Option at ASCI
Diabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).
There are three main types of diabetes:
- Type 1 diabetes: results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin. (Also referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM for short, and juvenile diabetes.)
- Type 2 diabetes: results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. (Formerly referred to as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM for short, and adult-onset diabetes.)
- Gestational diabetes: is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may precede development of type 2 DM.
Stem Cell Treatment for Diabetes
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Hyperglycemia attenuates remifentanil postconditioning-induced cardioprotection against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts.
Related Articles Hyperglycemia attenuates remifentanil postconditioning-induced cardioprotection against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. J Surg Res. 2016 Jun 15;203(2):483-90 Authors: Chen L, Chen M, Du J, Wan L, Zhang L, Gu E Abstract BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia is proposed to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Preclinical studies suggest that diabetes mellitus exacerbates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and attenuates the effects of cardioprotective strategies. The cardioprotective effects of postconditioning with the opioid analgesic remifentanil against ischemia/reperfusion injury under the hyperglycemic condition remain contradictory. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which hyperglycemia affects cardioprotection induced by remifentanil postconditioning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: H9c2 cardiomyoblasts were cultured under the normoglycemic or hyperglycemic condition. Cells were exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury followed by hypoxia postconditioning (HPC group) or remifentanil postconditioning (RPC group). Cell viability, injury, and apoptosis were measured after each postconditioning treatment. Activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) was analyzed by examining the protein levels of GRP78, CHOP, cleaved caspase-12 and cleaved caspase-3. RESULTS: RPC significantly increased cell viability and reduced apoptosis in normoglycemic cardiomyoblasts, but not in hyperglycemic cardiomyoblasts. HPC and RPC markedly decreased the upregulation of GRP78, CHOP, cleaved caspase 12, and cleaved caspase 3 in response to H/R injury under the normoglycemic condition. Hyperglycemia significantly increased these ERS-associated biomarkers and apoptosis, which could not be reduced by HPC or RPC. CONCLUSIONS: Remifentanil postconditioning protected cardiomyoblasts from H/R injury under normoglycemia, at least in part, through inhibiting ERS-induced apoptosis. Hyperglycemia attenuated the cardioprotection conferred by remifentanil postconditioning, likely as a result of the exacerbated ERS. Inhibiting the ERS response may be an attractive strategy to enhance the cardioprotective effects of postconditioning in diabetic patients. PMID: 27363659 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Read more...
Related Articles Cordyceps militaris Treatment Preserves Renal Function in Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy Mice. PLoS One. 2016;11(11):e0166342 Authors: Yu SH, Dubey NK, Li WS, Liu MC, Chiang HS, Leu SJ, Shieh YH, Tsai FC, Deng WP Abstract Diabetic nephropathy is derived from long-term effects of high blood glucose on kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients. Several antidiabetic drugs and herbal medications have failed to prevent episodes of DN. Hence, this study aimed to further investigate the renal injury-reducing effect of antidiabetic CmNo1, a novel combination of powders of fruiting bodies and mycelia of Cordyceps militaris. After being administered with streptozotocin-nicotinamide and high-fat-diet, the diabetic nephropathy mouse model displayed elevated blood glucose and renal dysfunction markers including serum creatinine and kidney-to-body weight ratio. These elevated markers were significantly mitigated following 8 weeks CmNo1 treatment. Moreover, the chronic hyperglycemia-induced pathological alteration in renal tissue were also ameliorated. Besides, immunohistochemical study demonstrated a substantial reduction in elevated levels of carboxymethyl lysine, an advanced glycation end product. Elevated collagenous deposition in DN group was also attenuated through CmNo1 administration. Moreover, the enhanced levels of transforming growth factor-β1, a fibrosis-inducing protein in glomerulus were also markedly dampened. Furthermore, auxiliary risk factors in DN like serum triglycerides and cholesterol were found to be increased but were decreased by CmNo1 treatment. Conclusively, the results suggests that CmNo1 exhibit potent and efficacious renoprotective action against hyperglycemia-induced DN. PMID: 27832180 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Read more...
Hyperglycemia Induces Skin Barrier Dysfunctions with Impairment of Epidermal Integrity in Non-Wounded Skin of Type 1 Diabetic Mice.
Related Articles Hyperglycemia Induces Skin Barrier Dysfunctions with Impairment of Epidermal Integrity in Non-Wounded Skin of Type 1 Diabetic Mice. PLoS One. 2016;11(11):e0166215 Authors: Okano J, Kojima H, Katagi M, Nakagawa T, Nakae Y, Terashima T, Kurakane T, Kubota M, Maegawa H, Udagawa J Abstract Diabetes causes skin complications, including xerosis and foot ulcers. Ulcers complicated by infections exacerbate skin conditions, and in severe cases, limb/toe amputations are required to prevent the development of sepsis. Here, we hypothesize that hyperglycemia induces skin barrier dysfunction with alterations of epidermal integrity. The effects of hyperglycemia on the epidermis were examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice with/without insulin therapy. The results showed that dye leakages were prominent, and transepidermal water loss after tape stripping was exacerbated in diabetic mice. These data indicate that hyperglycemia impaired skin barrier functions. Additionally, the distribution of the protein associated with the tight junction structure, tight junction protein-1 (ZO-1), was characterized by diffuse and significantly wider expression in the diabetic mice compared to that in the control mice. In turn, epidermal cell number was significantly reduced and basal cells were irregularly aligned with ultrastructural alterations in diabetic mice. In contrast, the number of corneocytes, namely, denucleated and terminally differentiated keratinocytes significantly increased, while their sensitivity to mechanical stress was enhanced in the diabetic mice. We found that cell proliferation was significantly decreased, while apoptotic cells were comparable in the skin of diabetic mice, compared to those in the control mice. In the epidermis, Keratin 5 and keratin 14 expressions were reduced, while keratin 10 and loricrin were ectopically induced in diabetic mice. These data suggest that hyperglycemia altered keratinocyte proliferation/differentiation. Finally, these phenotypes observed in diabetic mice were mitigated by insulin treatment. Reduction in basal cell number and perturbation of the proliferation/differentiation process could be the underlying mechanisms for impaired skin barrier functions in diabetic mice. PMID: 27846299 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Read more...