Stem Cell Treatments for Alzheimer's Disease are now available at ASCI
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia; it worsens as it progresses, and eventually leads to death. It was first described by German psychiatrist and neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer in 1906 and was named after him.
Most often, AD is diagnosed in people over 65 years of age, although the less-prevalent early-onset Alzheimer's can occur much earlier. In 2006, there were 26.6 million sufferers worldwide. Alzheimer's is predicted to affect 1 in 85 people globally by 2050.
Although Alzheimer's disease develops differently for every individual, there are many common symptoms. Early symptoms are often mistakenly thought to be 'age-related' concerns, or manifestations of stress. In the early stages, the most common symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events. When AD is suspected, the diagnosis is usually confirmed with tests that evaluate behaviour and thinking abilities, often followed by a brain scan if available.
The cause for most Alzheimer's cases is still essentially unknown (except for 1% to 5% of cases where genetic differences have been identified). Several competing hypotheses exist trying to explain the cause of the disease. The oldest, on which most currently available drug therapies are based, is the cholinergic hypothesis, which proposes that AD is caused by reduced synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The cholinergic hypothesis has not maintained widespread support, largely because medications intended to treat acetylcholine deficiency have not been very effective. Other cholinergic effects have also been proposed, for example, initiation of large-scale aggregation of amyloid, leading to generalised neuroinflammation.
A 2004 study found that deposition of amyloid plaques does not correlate well with neuron loss. This observation supports the tau hypothesis, the idea that tau protein abnormalities initiate the disease cascade. In this model, hyperphosphorylated tau begins to pair with other threads of tau. Eventually, they form neurofibrillary tangles inside nerve cell bodies. When this occurs, the microtubules disintegrate, collapsing the neuron's transport system. This may result first in malfunctions in biochemical communication between neurons and later in the death of the cells.
Another hypothesis asserts that the disease may be caused by age-related myelin breakdown in the brain. Demyelination leads to axonal transport disruptions. Iron released during myelin breakdown is hypothesized to cause further damage. Homeostatic myelin repair processes contribute to the development of proteinaceous deposits such as amyloid-beta and tau.
Oxidative stress may be significant in the formation of the pathology.
Alzheimers Stem Cell Treatment and stem cell therapy.
Alzheimers treatment studies and stem cell protocols:
Related Articles Production of transgenic pig as an Alzheimer's disease model using a multi-cistronic vector system. PLoS One. 2017;12(6):e0177933 Authors: Lee SE, Hyun H, Park MR, Choi Y, Son YJ, Park YG, Jeong SG, Shin MY, Ha HJ, Hong HS, Choi MK, Im GS, Park EW, Kim YH, Park C, Kim EY, Park SP Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with memory loss and cognitive impairments. An AD transgenic (Tg) pig model would be useful for preclinical testing of therapeutic agents. We generated an AD Tg pig by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using a multi-cistronic vector that harbored three AD-related genes with a total of six well-characterized mutations: hAPP (K670N/M671L, I716V, and V717I), hTau (P301L), and hPS1 (M146V and L286P). Four AD Tg cell lines were established from Jeju black pig ear fibroblasts (JB-PEFs); the resultant JB-PEFAD cells harbored transgene integration, expressed transgene mRNAs, and had normal karyotypes. Tg line #2-1, which expressed high levels of the transgenes, was used for SCNT; cleavage and blastocyst rates of embryos derived from this line were lower than those of Non-Tg. These embryos yielded three piglets (Jeju National University AD-Tg pigs, JNUPIGs) revealed by microsatellite testing to be genetically identical to JB-PEFAD. Transgenes were expressed in multiple tissues, and at especially high levels in brain, and Aβ-40/42, total Tau, and GFAP levels were high in brains of the Tg animals. Five or more copies of transgenes were inserted into chromosome X. This is the first report of an AD Tg pig derived from a multi-cistronic vector. PMID: 28586343 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Read more...