Stem Cell Treatments for Alzheimer's Disease are now available at ASCI
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia; it worsens as it progresses, and eventually leads to death. It was first described by German psychiatrist and neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer in 1906 and was named after him.
Most often, AD is diagnosed in people over 65 years of age, although the less-prevalent early-onset Alzheimer's can occur much earlier. In 2006, there were 26.6 million sufferers worldwide. Alzheimer's is predicted to affect 1 in 85 people globally by 2050.
Although Alzheimer's disease develops differently for every individual, there are many common symptoms. Early symptoms are often mistakenly thought to be 'age-related' concerns, or manifestations of stress. In the early stages, the most common symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events. When AD is suspected, the diagnosis is usually confirmed with tests that evaluate behaviour and thinking abilities, often followed by a brain scan if available.
The cause for most Alzheimer's cases is still essentially unknown (except for 1% to 5% of cases where genetic differences have been identified). Several competing hypotheses exist trying to explain the cause of the disease. The oldest, on which most currently available drug therapies are based, is the cholinergic hypothesis, which proposes that AD is caused by reduced synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The cholinergic hypothesis has not maintained widespread support, largely because medications intended to treat acetylcholine deficiency have not been very effective. Other cholinergic effects have also been proposed, for example, initiation of large-scale aggregation of amyloid, leading to generalised neuroinflammation.
A 2004 study found that deposition of amyloid plaques does not correlate well with neuron loss. This observation supports the tau hypothesis, the idea that tau protein abnormalities initiate the disease cascade. In this model, hyperphosphorylated tau begins to pair with other threads of tau. Eventually, they form neurofibrillary tangles inside nerve cell bodies. When this occurs, the microtubules disintegrate, collapsing the neuron's transport system. This may result first in malfunctions in biochemical communication between neurons and later in the death of the cells.
Another hypothesis asserts that the disease may be caused by age-related myelin breakdown in the brain. Demyelination leads to axonal transport disruptions. Iron released during myelin breakdown is hypothesized to cause further damage. Homeostatic myelin repair processes contribute to the development of proteinaceous deposits such as amyloid-beta and tau.
Oxidative stress may be significant in the formation of the pathology.
Alzheimers Stem Cell Treatment and stem cell therapy.
Alzheimers treatment studies and stem cell protocols:
Related Articles Aberrant iPSC-derived human astrocytes in Alzheimer's disease. Cell Death Dis. 2017 Mar 23;8(3):e2696 Authors: Jones VC, Atkinson-Dell R, Verkhratsky A, Mohamet L Abstract The pathological potential of human astroglia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) was analysed in vitro using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology. Here, we report development of a human iPSC-derived astrocyte model created from healthy individuals and patients with either early-onset familial AD (FAD) or the late-onset sporadic form of AD (SAD). Our chemically defined and highly efficient model provides >95% homogeneous populations of human astrocytes within 30 days of differentiation from cortical neural progenitor cells (NPCs). All astrocytes expressed functional markers including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), excitatory amino acid transporter-1 (EAAT1), S100B and glutamine synthetase (GS) comparable to that of adult astrocytes in vivo. However, induced astrocytes derived from both SAD and FAD patients exhibit a pronounced pathological phenotype, with a significantly less complex morphological appearance, overall atrophic profiles and abnormal localisation of key functional astroglial markers. Furthermore, NPCs derived from identical patients did not show any differences, therefore, validating that remodelled astroglia are not as a result of defective neural intermediates. This work not only presents a novel model to study the mechanisms of human astrocytes in vitro, but also provides an ideal platform for further interrogation of early astroglial cell autonomous events in AD and the possibility of identification of novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of AD. PMID: 28333144 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Read more...